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Brownfields - Cattle Dip Vats

Cattle Dip Vats (CDVs)

In the early 1900’s the cattle industry was suffering from the Texas tick fever entering Florida with cattle from other states. Cattle Dip Vats were constructed beginning in 1910 as a federal mandate to eradicate cattle tick fever. Cattle were corralled and run through concrete dipping vats filled with a solution containing arsenic, DDT and other organochloro pesticides. The program was terminated in the late 1960’s due to when it was believed that cattle tick fever was eradicated. Some of these structures remain in place where the toxic solution may impact both the soil and groundwater. There are 12 known CDVs throughout The Seminole Tribe of Florida’s (STOF) Tribal Lands. Remediation of these sites has been underway to protect both the health of the environment and the surrounding population. A list of CDV sites are listed below:

  • Tucker Ridge CDV (Brighton Reservation)
  • Cotton CDV (Brighton Reservation)
  • Johnny Bow Legs CDV (Brighton Reservation)
  • Forestry CDV (Brighton Reservation)
  • Red Barn CDV (Brighton Reservation)
  • Marsh Pens CDV (Brighton Reservation)
  • West Feeder CDV (Big Cypress Reservation)
  • Bull Project CDV (Big Cypress Reservation)
  • Dusty/Family Investment Center CDV (Big Cypress Reservation)
  • Jones Grade CDV (Big Cypress Reservation)
  • Seminole Groves CDV (Big Cypress Reservation)
  • Food Bank Cowpens CDV (Big Cypress Reservation)
Big Cypress - West Feeder Cattle Dip Vat (CDV)

Location: Remote wooden hammock south of County Rd. 833

Area: Less than 1 acre.

Site Information: In the early 1900’s the cattle industry was suffering from the Texas tick fever entering Florida with cattle from other states. Cattle Dip Vats were constructed beginning in 1910 as a federal mandate to eradicate cattle tick fever. Cattle were corralled and run through concrete dipping vats filled with a solution containing arsenic, DDT and other organochloro pesticides. The program was terminated in the late 1960’s due to when it was believed that the cattle tick fever was eradicated. Some of these structures remain in place where the toxic solution may impact both the soil and groundwater. The West Feeder CDV’s concrete structure was removed in 2006 and disposed of properly. Additional soil and groundwater testing of the site was performed by a Phase II Environmental Site Assessment (ESA) in 2007 and warranted additional source removal activities of contaminated soils. Contaminated soils were successfully removed and disposed of properly in 2009. To determine the groundwater quality in the area where the soils were excavated, in January 2012, ERMD personnel coordinated and supervised the installation of five monitoring wells for assessment of the groundwater. The assessment which included the collection of groundwater samples and analysis of parameters of concern such as arsenic and organochlorine pesticides indicated that concentrations of these parameters did not exceed the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) Groundwater Cleanup Target Levels. The results of the assessment indicated that the soil remedial activities conducted in 2009 were successful in mitigating not only the impacted soils but the source for groundwater contamination. Based on the soil remediation and results of the groundwater assessment, no further remediation activities are warranted at this time.

Big Cypress - Bull Pasture Cattle Dip Vat (CDV)

Location: South of Snake Road Hendry County, FL

Area: Less than 1 acre

Site Information:In the early 1900’s the cattle industry was suffering from the Texas tick fever entering Florida with cattle from other states. Cattle Dip Vats were constructed beginning in 1910 as a federal mandate to eradicate cattle fever tick. Cattle were corralled and run through concrete dipping vats filled with a solution containing arsenic, DDT and other organochloro pesticides. The program was terminated in the 1960’s due to when it was believed that the fever tick was eradicated. Some of these structures remain in place where the toxic solution may impact both the soil and groundwater. Historical records of the Bull Pasture indicate that a former CDV may be located at this project site.
In 2011, a geophysical investigation was completed using ground penetrating radar (GPR) to determine the possible presence and location of the former CDV. The geophysical investigation could not determine the CDV location within the surveyed area of the project site. In September of 2011, the Environmental Resource Management Department (ERMD) conducted a soil assessment in the surveyed area encompassing the existing cow pen in an effort to determine the soil conditions and if possible, the location of the CDV. The soil assessment encompassed the advancement of borings and analysis of soil samples for arsenic. Based on the laboratory results which indicated that just three locations showed concentrations of arsenic above background levels, In January 2012, ERMD conducted a groundwater assessment to determine the groundwater conditions in these areas. Groundwater samples collected and analyzed for arsenic and organochlorine pesticides did not reveal the presence of these contaminants. Based on the results of the soil and groundwater assessment, no further action is warranted at this time.

Brighton - Tucker Ridge Cattle Dip Vat (CDV)

Location: Northeast corner of the Brighton Reservation Glades County, FL

Area: Less than 1 acre.

Site Information: In the early 1900’s the cattle industry was suffering from the Texas tick fever entering Florida with cattle from other states. Cattle Dip Vats were constructed beginning in 1910 as a federal mandate to eradicate cattle tick fever. Cattle were corralled and run through concrete dipping vats filled with a solution containing arsenic, DDT and other organochloro pesticides. The program was terminated in the 1960’s due to when it was believed that the cattle tick fever was eradicated. Some of these structures remain in place where the toxic solution may impact both the soil and groundwater. The Tucker Ridge CDV is located in a shell rock quarry that is currently active. The CDV was initially identified by degradation of vegetation both in and surrounding the dip vat. Since the initial identification, the CDV has been removed and properly disposed of. Soil and groundwater samples have been analyzed to determine the impacts of arsenic and organochlorine pesticides. Removal of contaminated soil was completed in 2004 and disposed of properly. The Tucker Ridge CDV was backfilled and leveled. In August 2012, as part of preliminary assessment activities at several CDVs to determine their current environmental status, the subsurface assessment indicated that the Tucker Ridge CDV is not currently impacted by arsenic or pesticides. Analytical results indicate that no further action is warranted for this site. The existing monitoring wells will be properly abandoned.

Brighton - Cotton Cattle Dip Vat (CDV)

Location: Remote wooden hammock Glades County, FL

Area: Less than 1 acre.

Site Information: In the early 1900’s the cattle industry was suffering from the Texas tick fever entering Florida with cattle from other states. Cattle Dip Vats were constructed beginning in 1910 as a federal mandate to eradicate cattle fever tick. Cattle were corralled and run through concrete dipping vats filled with a solution containing arsenic, DDT and other organochloro pesticides. The program was terminated in the 1960’s due to when it was believed that the cattle tick fever was eradicated. Some of these structures remain in place where the toxic solution may impact both the soil and groundwater. The Cotton CDV is located in a remote wooden hammock surrounded by palmetto trees. In 2004, the CDV was removed and disposed of properly. In August 2012 the soil and groundwater was assessed to determine if an adverse impact from arsenic and organochlorine pesticide use had occurred. Based on the analytical results of the preliminary assessment, a full comprehensive assessment is warranted.

Brighton - Johnny Bow Leg’s Pasture Cattle Dip Vat (CDV)

Location: West side of BIA highway 283 Glades County, FL

Area: Less than 1 acre.

Site Information: In the early 1900’s the cattle industry was suffering from the Texas tick fever entering Florida with cattle from other states. Cattle Dip Vats were constructed beginning in 1910 as a federal mandate to eradicate cattle tick fever. Cattle were corralled and run through concrete dipping vats filled with a solution containing arsenic, DDT and other organochloro pesticides. The program was terminated in the 1960’s due to when it was believed that the cattle tick fever was eradicated. Some of these structures remain in place where the toxic solution may impact both the soil and groundwater. The Johnny Bow Leg’s Pasture CDV was removed and properly disposed of in 2004. Soil and groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for arsenic and pesticides as part of a preliminary assessment conducted in August of 2012. Based on the analytical laboratory results no further remediation actions are needed for this site.

Brighton - Marsh Pen Cattle Dip Vat (CDV)

Location: Off of Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) Highway 1305

Area: Less than 1 acre.

Site Information: In the early 1900’s the cattle industry was suffering from the Texas tick fever entering Florida with cattle from other states. Cattle Dip Vats were constructed beginning in 1910 as a federal mandate to eradicate cattle fever tick. Cattle were corralled and run through concrete dipping vats filled with a solution containing arsenic, DDT and other organochloro pesticides. The program was terminated in the 1960’s due to when it was believed that the fever tick was eradicated. This facility still operates in the same location. The vat structure was excavated but some pieces remain within the general vicinity and most likely will be removed in Fiscal Year 2013. Based on a preliminary subsurface assessment conducted in August 2012, a full comprehensive assessment is warranted.

Brighton - Food Bank Cow Pens Cattle Dip Vat (CDV)

Location: Located along State Road 721 Glades County, FL

Area: Less than 1 acre.

Site Information: In the early 1900’s the cattle industry was suffering from the Texas tick fever entering Florida with cattle from other states. Cattle Dip Vats were constructed beginning in 1910 as a federal mandate to eradicate cattle fever tick. Cattle were corralled and run through concrete dipping vats filled with a solution containing arsenic, DDT and other organochloro pesticides. The program was terminated in the 1960’s due to when it was believed that the fever tick was eradicated. Some of these structures remain in place where the toxic solution may impact both the soil and groundwater. Several environmental studies have been conducted at this site starting in 2004. The latest preliminary assessment performed in August 2012 indicated that the soil and groundwater warrant the performance of a full comprehensive site assessment and remediation.

Brighton - Red Barn Cattle Dip Vat - Glades County, FL

Location: Located along State Road 721 Glades County, FL

Area: Less than 1 acre.

Site Information: In the early 1900’s the cattle industry was suffering from the Texas tick fever entering Florida with cattle from other states. Cattle Dip Vats were constructed beginning in 1910 as a federal mandate to eradicate cattle tick fever. Cattle were corralled and run through concrete dipping vats filled with a solution containing arsenic, DDT and other organochloro pesticides. The program was terminated in the late 1960’s due to when it was believed that the cattle tick fever was eradicated. Some of these structures remain in place where the toxic solution may impact both the soil and groundwater. The Red Barn Brownfield site consists of a CDV and a pole barn which served as a Drum Staging Area. The former Drum Staging Area included two permanent structures; a pole barn and a concrete block structure equipped with an above ground storage tank (AST) and underground storage tank (UST) for vehicle fueling. In 1999, the discarded drums and petroleum storage tank were removed and disposed of properly. Analytical laboratory results of soil and groundwater samples were performed within the immediate vicinity of the former Drum Staging Area.

In 2004, the CDV’s sludge and concrete structure were removed and disposed of properly. Soil and groundwater samples have been analyzed to determine the impacts of arsenic and organochlorine pesticides within the immediate vicinity of the CDV. A groundwater pump and treat system was installed in 2008 to remediate the arsenic in the groundwater. Water restrictions have been implemented on the two properties surrounding the Red Barn Brownfield site. These sites are now serviced by the local water utility and no use of irrigation or drinking water is permitted from on-site wells. Following a comprehensive subsurface assessment for arsenic and pesticides in 2010, a remedial plan that includes the excavation/removal and proper disposal of impacted soils was implemented in 2012. A total of 3,200 tons of impacted soils were removed and properly disposed of. In Fiscal Year 2013, the groundwater conditions will be re-assessed prior to treatment.

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